Specification for installation of fire fighting equipment
The fire risk of different parts of the building is different from the fire danger. The influence of the installation site of the decoration material on the fire danger is from high to low: the top of the ceiling - wall all - the upper part of the wall - the lower part of the wall. Is closely related to the occurrence of the number and location of the flashover severity and indoor combustible, flammable fire the number is fiercer, fuel heating surface area is big fire fiercer. Room of combustible materials in different positions, fire flashover severity is different, on the ceiling and walls of the upper than in the lower part of the wall to intense. The fire flashover is fiercer, fire damage is greater, the greater the possibility of fire spread to adjacent rooms and buildings, faster.
Building internal as much as possible to reduce the combustible material, interior decoration should actively use incombustible material or flame retardant material, especially the ceiling and walls should be used non combustible decoration materials. As far as possible to avoid the use of a large number of smoke or toxic gases produced by the burning of the material.
Two, interior decoration graphic design problems
Now, there are a lot of decoration engineering construction units in interior decoration, not timely to the public security fire department declaration, allowed for the renovation, not according to the national standard of the fire district, anti smoke compartmentation, evacuation routes, safety exit setup that left many of the congenital fire hazards, in the event of a fire, caused heavy casualties and property losses. If the fire in February 26, 1994 Hunan Xiangtan Haitian casino, the loss of 720 thousand yuan, 6 people died. The casino is a set of office, business, accommodation, entertainment as one integrated building, the decoration on the firewall to open the door, the fire spread left a & ldquo; door & rdquo;, resulting in serious consequences. In November 27, 1994, a fire broke out in Liaoning province Fuxin City Yiyuan dance hall, resulting in 233 deaths, 20 people were injured. At that time, after the fire, people can escape the north gate is only 0.8 meters wide, and 5 steps, resulting in a large number of casualties.
In the decoration of graphic design, should fully consider the fire partition and fire separation, evacuation of the channel and exit design, in accordance with the actual needs of functional requirements and safety requirements, reasonable layout.
Three, electrical design and installation problems
According to the fire department statistics, 80% of the fire is caused by electrical reasons. Therefore, must be strictly in accordance with the design and installation of electrical safety norms. On the one hand, to fully consider the safety factor in the design of electrical load, should be set to prevent overload, leakage of air switch, pay attention to the use of three-phase load balance. On the other hand, to prevent overload of electricity,
In the electrical design to carefully consider the use of functions and specific circumstances, the electrical design. A lot of electrical fire because night after work electrical short circuit or equipment failure caused by, if the all electrical equipment without the use of a total turn off the power switch in the work, equipment and equipment of the power supply line is not charged, eliminating the fire hazard in these lines and equipment. Such as: lights on duty should be set up a separate circuit, to at night on duty off other can turn off the electrical equipment power supply switch; 24 hours of operation of power supply equipment, such as emergency lighting, refrigerator etc. shall be set up a separate circuit; the power supply for high power air conditioning, motor and other electric equipment should also be set up a separate circuit. Also power supply for fire fighting should set up special circuit, ensure that the emergency lighting, safety evacuation signs, fire pump, automatic alarm, automatic fire extinguishing facilities of power supply, and the power supply loop should be set measures to protect, to ensure early fire play due function.
In line installation must comply with the requirements of the relevant specifications. Most of the previous wire installation is laid out, and later due to the needs of the beautiful, and gradually use the dark. In this period, many fires are due to the dark deposited in the combustible decoration materials of the wire short circuit occurs to ignite combustible materials caused by. Therefore, it should be more safe and reliable way to carry out the installation of electric wire. For example, the installation of flame retardant plastic pipe can effectively avoid the fire caused by short circuit of the electric wire. The connection box and the switch box should not be installed on the combustible material, and the tank lamp, the ceiling lamp and the heating element are insulated by the non burning material.
Distribution box, lighting should be installed in the installation of heat insulation, cooling and other fire measures. Requirements of the relevant national standards, such as & ldquo; building internal distribution box should not installed directly below the B1 level of decoration materials & rdquo;, & ldquo; high-temperature parts of the lighting lamps and lanterns, when close to the non class a decoration materials should be take insulation, heat, fire protection measures & rdquo; and so on. Such as the 1994 Karamay friendship house fire, resulting in 325 people were killed and 130 injured, is due to the stage lighting baked with flammable curtain caused.